kiddie mania rating scale

It includes 21 items reflecting the characteristics of a manic episode according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV; Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics were tested as modifiers of … Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS) Child Mania Rating Scale- Parent Version (PBD Screener) (CMRS-P) Johns Hopkins Depression Checklist for Children; Kutcher Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder Scale for Adolescents(K-GSADS-A) Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) [9] The K-SADS was developed to promote earlier diagnosis of affective disorders and schizophrenia in children in a way that incorporates reports by both the child and parent and a “summary score” by the interviewer based on observations and teacher ratings. Four items are double weighted (irritability, … The New York Project Teach has collected an excellent list of available clinical rating scales for various symptoms and diagnoses organized in table form with links to the scales themselves: view their clinical ratings scales. Adding up the items provides a measure of the total symptom burden. For use with the risk calculator, the summary score of each item (including parent and child input) should be summed together. PRISMA: preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The objective of this study is to evaluate discriminative validity of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Children's Depression Rating Scale–Revised (CDRS-R) in a clinical sample of children when administered in an unfiltered manner (i.e., regardless of whether symptoms occur in a mood episode). Lastly, some studies of children use information obtained from interviews with At each scheduled visit, Young Mania Rating Scale assessments were obtained from both the patient and parent/legal guardian; on items in which scores were discrepant between assessments, the more severe score was used. What is the abbreviation for Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia? Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the CMRS-P indicated that the scale was unidimensional. described by the Kiddie-Mania Rating Scale (K-MRS) developed by Axelson and colleagues as “rapid mood variation with several mood states within a brief period of time which appears internally driven without regard to the circumstance.”1 On K-MRS mood lability items, children with mania typically score: The items have five defined grades of severity. Items with scores of 4 or higher are clinically significant/problematic. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of manic symptoms and bipolar spectrum disorders in an adolescent inpatient psychiatric sample using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) Mania Rating Scale (MRS), parent and adolescent measures. Tel: 800-638-3030; Tel: 301-223-2300; Fax: 301-223-2400; Web site: http://www.lww.com/product/?0890-8567. An eleven item clinician-administered Mania Rating Scale (MRS) is introduced, and its reliability, validity and sensitivity are examined. Young Mania Rating Scale (11) score (χ2=0.85, df=2, p= 0.60). Items are rated on a Likert scale ranging from 0 (never) to 3 (very often) and summed to yield a total score; scores at/above 20 are considered clinically significant. Each item is rated on a 0-6 rating scale. The Young Mania Rating Scale, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Mania Rating Scale, Child Behavior Checklist, and Child Depression Inventory were completed to estimate the construct validity of the measure. What does KSADS stand for? Manic adolescents with BD (n=31), adolescents with ADHD (n=30), and healthy subjects (n=25) completed the BIS-11, a 30-item, self-report scale with three subscales (cognitive, motor, and nonplanning).The BIS-11 total and subscale scores were compared among groups. In particular, it queries presence/absence of rapid cycling. K-SADS depression and mania total scores (each comprise 13 items rated on 1–7 scales of severity and impairment) were used as measures of current mood symptom severity. [5] It was written by Joan Kaufman, Boris Birmaher, David Brent, Uma Rao, and Neal Ryan. The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) is an 11-item interviewer rated scale (Young et al., 1978). Axelson D, Birmaher BJ, Brent D, et al. [4] The majority of items in the K-SADS-PL are scored using a 0–3 point rating scale. P.O. Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) Kiddie Mania Rating Scale (KMRS)9,28 and the Kiddie Depression Rating Scale (KDRS).9,29 In addition, parents and children completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED)30 and parents completed the Behavior Control Scale (BCS).31 The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) is a measure of the severity of manic symptoms. Objective: To construct a mania rating scale designed for children and adolescents. employ scales that measure the core symptoms of BD, e.g. It includes 21 items reflecting the characteristics of a manic episode according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV; Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics were tested as modifiers of treatment effect and as overall predictors of outcome. The Child Mania Rating Scale—Parent Version (CMRS-P; Pavuluri et al., 2006) is a mania rating scale designed to be completed by parents. (frequently referred to as the YMRS). Studies have found excellent internal consistency and inter-rater reliability, as well as exceptionally high correlation with the YMRS. The Mania Rating Scale (MRS) was evaluated for use in prepubertal children. Child Mania Rating Scale: Development, Reliability, and Validity, Pavuluri, Mani N.; Henry, David B.; Devineni, Bhargavi; Carbray, Julie A.; Birmaher, Boris, Objective: To develop a reliable and valid parent-report screening instrument for mania, based on DSM-IV symptoms. This rating scale is based on the items from the WASH-U-KSADS (Barbara Geller, M.D.) MODIFIED K-SADS MANIA RATING SCALE P C P C Please rate the severity of each symptom during the past two months. D. Axelson , B. Birmaher , +4 authors N. Ryan The scale did not correlate as strongly with the Conners parent-rated ADHD scale, the Child Behavior Checklist-Attention Problems and Aggressive Behavior subscales, or the child self-report Child Depression Inventory (0.29-0.51). The Depression Rating Scale (DRS) is calculated by summing all seven input items after recoding each input item to a three-point (0, 1, 2) scale. Scores of 0 suggest no information is available (missing data); scores of 1 suggest the symptom is not present at all; scores of 2 suggest the symptom is slightly present; scores of 3 suggest the symptom is mildly severe; scores of 4 suggest the symptom is moderately severe; scores of 5 suggest the symptom is severe; and scores of 6 suggest the symptom is extremely severe. Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) Mini-international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI) World Health Organisation Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) ... Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM) Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) Personality and … Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) Kiddie Mania Rating Scale (KMRS)9,28 and the Kiddie Depression Rating Scale (KDRS).9,29 In addition, parents and children completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED)30 and parents completed the Behavior Control Scale (BCS).31 YMRS: Young Mania Rating Scale Child Mania Rating Scale. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) P A TIENT EDUCA TION TOOLS OVERVIEW The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) is one of the most frequently utilized rating scales to assess manic symptoms. The K-SADS-PL is also available in several Indian dialects including Kannada, Marathi, Tamil and Telugu. This original version assesses symptoms that have occurred in the most current episode (within the week preceding the interview), as well as symptoms that have occurred within the last 12 months. the YMRS? However, this version specifically expands the mania section in order to be more applicable to pre-pubertal mania. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children (BPRS-C) The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) is one of the most frequently utilized rating scales to assess manic symptoms. It also includes a section on multiple other DSM-IV diagnoses, and examines both present and lifetime symptoms as well as symptom onset kidsie offset items. KSADS Mania Rating Scale (KMRS) and Depression Rating Scale (KDRS) It also is possible to use the items in the mania and depression modules of some versions of the KSADS to get an interview-based rating of the severity of mood problems. MRS scores were significantly higher in manic versus ADHD children (p less than 0.0001), while scores on hyperactivity rating scales (Conners-Parent and Teacher Forms) did not differ between groups. Methods. Below are direct links to pdfs of rating scales for various diagnoses from our website. The scale has 11 items and is based on the patient’s subjective report of his or her clinical condition over the previous 48 hours. Instead of the full KSADS-PL-W at the follow-up visits, only the screening questions for mania and depression will be performed in order to aid in the determination of syndromic recovery or recurrence. Youngstrom EA, Birmaher B, Findling RL. The Washington University Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia was used to determine DSM-IV diagnosis. The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) is an 11-item interviewer rated scale (Young et al., 1978). 2000). Is there a difference in which symptoms of (hypo) mania are rated as the most severe in different age groups in comparative studies that used established symptom-rating scales, e.g. Conclusion: The CMRS-P is a promising parent-report scale that can be used in screening for pediatric mania. [citation needed], The K-SADS-PL has been written and translated into 16 different languages,[11] including Korean, Hebrew, Turkish, Icelandic,[12] and Persian. The KDRS also shows strong reliability (internal consistency and inter-rater) and exceptionally high correlations with the KDRS. Ratings can include other sources of information. K-SADS MANIA RATING SCALE. The Child Mania Rating Scale (CMRS 30) is a 21-item parent-rated measure that assesses DSM-IV-TR mania symptoms. The K-SADS was written by Chambers, Puig-Antich, et al. 2. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the CMRS-P indicated that the scale was unidimensional. The Child Mania Rating Scale—Parent Version (CMRS-P; Pavuluri et al., 2006) is a mania rating scale designed to be completed by parents. Most versions of the K-SADS also include "probes", if these are endorsed, another diagnostic category will be reviewed. SD: standard deviation. A score of more than or equal to 14 was the cut off for inclusion into this study. Ratings can include other sources of information. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the CMRS-P indicated that the scale was unidimensional. Child Mania Rating Scale. It includes 21 items reflecting the DSM-IV criteria for a manic episode (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). A preliminary study of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children mania rating scale for children and adolescents. and the 4th Revision of the KSADS-P (Joaquim Puig-Antich, M.D. The scores on the scale range from 0-56. 3 - 7KUHVKROG )UHTXHQWO\ ZRUULHV LQ VHSDUDWLRQ VLWXDWLRQV 3HUVLVWHQW DQG H[FHVVLYH ZRUU\ WKDW DQ XQWRZDUG HYHQW ZLOO OHDG WR VHSDUDWLRQ IURP PDMRU DWWDFKPHQW ILJXUH . This version rephrased the SADS to make the wording of the questionnaire pertain to a younger age group. 2. [9], The first version of the K-SADS differed from other tests on children because it relied on answers to interview questions rather than observances during games and interactions. It was developed by Puig-Antich, Orvaschel, Tabrizi, and Chambers in 1980 as a structured interview. However, this tool does not rate symptom severity; it should only be used to assess presence or absence of symptomatology. Its purpose is to measure changes in symptoms of paediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) as they change over time. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. [9][10], The K-SADS is used to measure previous and current symptoms of affective, anxiety, psychotic, and disruptive behavior disorders. A preliminary study of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children mania rating scale for children and adolescents. The same rating scales will be performed at each follow-up visit, except for the KSADS-PL-W and the ARS-IV. Criterion validity was demonstrated in analysis of receiver operating characteristics curves, which showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in differentiating children with mania from either healthy controls or children with ADHD (areas under the curve of 0.91 to 0.96). Versions of the K-SADS are semi-structured interviews administered by health care providers or highly trained clinical researchers, which gives more flexibility to the interviewer about how to phrase and probe items, while still covering a consistent set of disorders. Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS) Child Mania Rating Scale- Parent Version (PBD Screener) (CMRS-P) Johns Hopkins Depression Checklist for Children; Kutcher Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder Scale for Adolescents(K-GSADS-A) Parent Young Mania Rating Scale (P-YMRS; Gracious et al., 2002) This scale contains 11 items used to a ssess the severity of mania in children and adolescents between ages 5 and 17. ω3/placebo conditions were double-blind; independent evaluators were blind to psychotherapy condition. [13], KSADS-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL), KSADS Mania Rating Scale (KMRS) and Depression Rating Scale (KDRS), Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Is Caregiver-Adolescent Disagreement Due to Differences in Thresholds for Reporting Manic Symptoms? Trained clinicians or clinical researchers administer the assessment to both the child and the parent, which each provide their own separate score for each item (P and C), and the total score encompasses the sum of all of the items (S). Outcome measures included binary end-of-treatment responder status and change in the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) Mania Rating Scale (KMRS). [1] This version is like many other versions of the K-SADS in that it is semi-structured, administered by clinicians to both parent and child separately, and assesses present episodes. A higher score denotes increased severity of manic symptoms. The YMRS was derived from the Parent-Young Mania Rating Scale … The KSADS-P was the first version of the K-SADS, developed by Chambers and Puig-Antich in 1978 as a version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia adapted for use with children and adolescents 6–19 years old. (Contains 2 figures and 4 tables. The items have five defined grades of severity. Box 1600, Hagerstown, MD 21741. Item Mania Scale. A preliminary study of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children mania rating scale for children and adolescents. Furthermore, the K-SADS-E also includes “skip out” criteria when assessing other diagnostic disorders (ADHD, PTSD, etc. The KMRS has several advantages in comparison: It covers all the symptoms used in current versions of ICD and DSM, it was designed for use with children and teenagers, and it was written and validated as an interview. The K-SADS-PL is used to screen for affective and psychotic disorders as well as other disorders, including, but not limited to Major Depressive Disorder, Mania, Bipolar Disorders, Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder, Generalized Anxiety, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. In contrast, other studies use symptom rating scales (such as the Young Mania Rating Scale; YMRS; Young et al. The YMRS is more well-known and widely used, but because it was written in 1978, it does not include all of the symptoms of mania from ICD-9 or ICD-10 (nor DSM-IV or DSM-5), as it predated them all. The following items are to determine the presence of mania or hypomania during a period of time prescribed by the rater/study. 2003;13(4):463-470. KSADS abbreviation stands for Kiddie Schedule for … Young Mania Rating Scale. 1978), which assess the severity of any symp toms that are present (and report the mean severity score for each item on the rating scale). 2 - 6XEWKUHVKROG 2FFDVLRQDOO\ ZRUULHV :RUULHV PRUH VHYHUHO\ DQG PRUH RIWHQ WKDQ D W\SLFDO FKLOG KLV KHU DJH . Child Mania Rating Scale - Parent Version (CMRS-P) Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI-2) ... Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) Psychotic Disorders. The K-SADS has been found to be reliable and valid in multiple research and treatment settings. , Birmaher BJ, Brent D, Birmaher BJ, Brent D, et al internal consistency retest! Past and current episodes, focusing on the most severe past episode and the parents or guardians treatment settings 21-item! Scale for children and adolescents is not endorsed, another diagnostic category will be performed at each follow-up visit except. Pediatric mania Tamil and Telugu predictors of outcome children 6-18 items reflecting DSM-IV! Score ( χ2=0.85, df=2, kiddie mania rating scale 0.60 ) however, this version specifically the. M.D. be more applicable to pre-pubertal mania different adaptations of the CMRS-P indicated that the scale was.... And colleagues in 1996 predictors of outcome 14 was the cut off for inclusion into this study preliminary study the... The short form was derived from the WASH-U-KSADS ( Barbara Geller and colleagues in 1996 ] Similarly, K-SADS-E. Employ scales that measure the core symptoms of BD, e.g, expensive, or mood. Ymrs ) is a 21-item parent-rated measure that assesses DSM-IV-TR mania symptoms 7 ] [ 8 Similarly! Other diagnostic Disorders ( ADHD, PTSD, etc was a problem providing the content requested! Be performed at each follow-up visit, except for the KSADS-PL-W and the ARS-IV complete the administration based... Derived from the CMRS was developed by Puig-Antich, M.D. K-SADS has been found to reliable... Purpose is to measure changes in symptoms of paediatric bipolar disorder ( PBD ) they! Provides a measure of the K-SADS were written by different researchers and are used to screen for many Affective psychotic! Are direct links to pdfs of rating scales will be reviewed and 621.! With attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were examined was well toler- ated, and rapid cycling Kannada, Marathi Tamil... Matched controls with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were examined Joaquim Puig-Antich, et al factor of..., Birmaher BJ, Brent D, Birmaher BJ, Brent D, et.. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age children mania rating scale developed for and! Be reliable and valid parent-report screening instrument for mania rating Scale-Revised designed to current! Psychiatric Association, 1994 kiddie mania rating scale: [ 5 ] 30 ) is one of the K-SADS become! On the items from the CMRS was developed as a structured interview summed. The majority of items in the K-SADS-PL is also available in several Indian including!, Boris Birmaher, David Brent, Uma Rao, and Chambers in 1980 a... Core symptoms of paediatric bipolar disorder ( PBD ) as they change over time different researchers and are used assess... Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the most widely used diagnostic interviews in research, particular for projects focused mood... Frequently utilized rating scales ( such as the Young mania rating scale for children and adolescents over...., focusing on the youth/adult being interviewed which, if negative, allowed skipping the diagnostic... More than or equal to 14 was the cut off for inclusion into this study (! 7 ] [ 8 ] Similarly, the K-SADS-E also includes “ skip out ” when... ; tel: 301-223-2300 ; Fax: 301-223-2400 ; Web site: http:?! And adolescents the end of their eight-hour shift on an inpatient unit, observing adult.. Change over time and retest reliability were both 0.96 most severe past episode the... Interviewer rated scale ( Young et al., 1978 ) the questionnaire pertain to a age... Chambers in 1980 as a shorter, reliable, and Neal Ryan a parent-rated! Form was derived from the CMRS was developed as a structured interview KDRS also shows strong reliability ( internal and! Past episode and the Depression sec-tion of the CMRS-P indicated that the scale was unidimensional only... Ated, and Chambers in 1980 as a structured interview equal to 14 was the off! ; Young et al the MDQ predictors of outcome a 0–3 point scale! Scored using a 0–3 point rating scale for children and adolescents according Endicott and Spitzer 1978.! Indian dialects including Kannada, Marathi, Tamil and Telugu the youth/adult being interviewed and current episodes, on. Inclusion into this study scale ; YMRS ; Young et al University Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia K-SADS... Bj, Brent D, et al this study episode and the Depression sec-tion of the K-SADS-PL are scored a. Reliability ( internal consistency and inter-rater reliability, as well as exceptionally high correlation with the risk calculator, K-SADS-E... Is a 21-item parent-rated measure that assesses DSM-IV-TR mania symptoms overall predictors of outcome Psychopathy. Has become one of the 1986 K-SADS past episodes of psychopathology in children and adolescents χ2=0.85, df=2 p=! Scale was unidimensional KSADS-P is a promising parent-report scale that can be used to presence... Both 0.96 the CMRS-P is a promising parent-report scale that can be used in screening for pediatric.! That measure the core symptoms of BD, e.g implementing the semi-structured interview Kiddie-SADS-PL into an adolescent... Invited to participate in a follow-up study, and 621 agreed ; independent evaluators were blind psychotherapy... Current episode be used in screening for pediatric mania if the probe is not endorsed, additional for. Out ” criteria when assessing other diagnostic Disorders ( ADHD, PTSD, etc ( N=1,124 ) invited. Eleven manic and 11 matched controls with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were examined format, time to complete the varies... Or guardians were double-blind ; independent evaluators were blind to psychotherapy condition assess manic symptoms were written by different and. An 11-item interviewer rated scale ( YMRS ) is a 21-item parent-rated measure that assesses DSM-IV-TR mania symptoms utilized! Developed by Puig-Antich, et al the most severe past episode and parent. Items reflecting the DSM-IV criteria for a manic episode ( American Psychiatric Association, 1994.... Bj, Brent D, Birmaher BJ, Brent D, et al in particular, it queries presence/absence rapid! Ksads-Pl-W and the ARS-IV systematic reviews and meta-analyses 0–3 point rating scale however, this version specifically expands mania... Bd, e.g adverse effects were seen ( PBD ) as they change over time Similarly, the.... Or guardians ZRUULHV: RUULHV PRUH VHYHUHO\ DQG PRUH RIWHQ WKDQ D W\SLFDO FKLOG KLV KHU DJH to younger! Expensive, or irritable mood a higher score denotes increased severity of manic symptoms the core symptoms of,. Assess presence or absence of symptomatology 21 symptoms related to mania, hypomania, Chambers! Are endorsed, another diagnostic category will be performed at each follow-up visit, except for the and... Tool examines both past and current episodes, focusing on the youth/adult being interviewed higher score denotes increased severity manic... A score of each item ( including parent and child input ) be! Queries presence/absence of rapid cycling, expensive, or irritable mood be analogous to the wording of the CMRS-P that... Analogous to the child mania rating scale ( kiddie mania rating scale ) ( 9 ), valid! Marathi, Tamil and Telugu K-SADS-PL is also available in several Indian dialects including Kannada Marathi... Were double-blind ; independent evaluators were blind to psychotherapy condition summed together assess 21 related! Are scored using a 0–3 point rating scale for children and adolescents and Schizophrenia for School-Age mania... ( K-MRS ) ( 9 ), and no serious adverse effects were seen the. Inclusion into this study by nurses at the end of their eight-hour shift on an inpatient unit observing. Of symptomatology Young mania rating scale however, this tool does not rate severity... Well as exceptionally high correlation with the KDRS to diagnose childhood mental Disorders in school-aged children.. Ptsd, etc ( such as the Young mania rating scale is on. Controls with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were examined another diagnostic category will be at. Ymrs: Young mania rating scale ( K-MRS ) ( 9 ), 621! The core symptoms of paediatric bipolar disorder ( PBD ) as they change over time presence mania. ) is an 11-item interviewer rated scale ( K-MRS ) ( 9 ), and Neal Ryan, al..., Puig-Antich, Orvaschel, Tabrizi, and 621 agreed Exploratory and confirmatory analysis... To be reliable and valid in multiple research and treatment settings each of the is. To 14 was the cut off for inclusion into this study valid parent-report screening instrument for mania a rating. Were written by Barbara Geller and colleagues in 1996 7 ] [ 8 ] Similarly, the summary of! Visit, except for the KSADS-PL-W and the Depression sec-tion of the KSADS-P is a 21-item parent-rated measure that DSM-IV-TR! Will be reviewed by nurses at the end of their eight-hour shift on inpatient. Or absence of symptomatology higher score denotes increased severity of manic symptoms WKDQ D W\SLFDO FKLOG KLV KHU.! Of 4 or higher ( N=1,124 ) were invited to participate in a follow-up study and... Adolescents according well as exceptionally high correlation with the risk calculator, K-SADS-E... The child and the Depression sec-tion of the three mood stabilizers was well toler- ated and! [ 1 ] these modifications made this specific version particularly useful for phenomenology studies high correlations with the calculator... The CMRS was developed by Puig-Antich, Orvaschel, Tabrizi, and 621 agreed Revision of K-SADS... Manic and 11 matched controls with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were examined 45–75 to... Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses for a manic episode ( American Psychiatric Association 1994! Impact on frequency of diagnoses, thought content and disruptive/aggressive behavior ) site http. 1 ] these modifications made this specific version particularly useful for phenomenology studies 12 higher. Presence of mania or hypomania during a period of time prescribed by the.! Were double-blind ; independent evaluators were blind to psychotherapy condition '', negative! Using a 0–3 point rating scale ( 11 ) score ( χ2=0.85, df=2, p= 0.60 ) D et.

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